Округа античной Феодосии

During the II century BC the Bosporian Kingdom hardly stood the strengthening onslaught :f Sarmatian tribes. The Satarch tribes which roamed from place to place in the steppe srtached to Sivash and made a plundering raids to Bosporus, stood out against a background :fthese barbarians. Probably, during one of such a raids taken place about 180 BC the trtification on the mountain ridge Biyuk Yanyshar was burnt down and ruined. For the second time this fortification was ruined in the end of the II century BC and it was probably connected with campaign of Diophantes against Saumakos taken place in spring of 107 BC. By the same date is dated the destruction of dwelling blocks of Feodosia. Probably, the military actions of that time have touched the settlement Sary Kaya and fortified settlement situated year vIIIage Vinogradnoye (Kuru Bash) where after the seizure the Pontic garrisons were Drobably left. Perhaps, the same garrison has been left in the fortified settlement Frontovoye 2, because among artefact of its necropolis of the II — III centuries AD there were found secondary used grave-stones belonging to the Greeks of Asia Minor. Archaeological data testify the persistent resistance of expeditionary forces of Diophantes and inhabitants of Feodosia and its chora. Probably it was a result of Feodosia’s supply to Saumacus and that the city together with Pantikapaion has been a strong point of rebels.

Having restored this power over Bosporus Mithradates VI Eupatoros has started preparation to the war with Rome and all burdens have laid upon the population of Bosporus. From there food, raw materials and people were delivered to Pontic army. It looks very much like that some part of deliveries was sent from Feodosia. All these have displeased the Bosporians and finally caused the repeated actions against Pontic administration. In 63 BC Fanagoria and other towns of the Northern Black Sea Littoral rebelled against Mithradates. The son of Mithradates — Pharnaces has supported rebels and by this action he won the recognition of Rome and the throne. The inner disorders in the Roman Empire permited Pharnaces to restore the Pontic Kingdom. The uniting of territories was successful, but he was defeated in 47 BC by Caesar at the battle at Zela. After the defeat he had escaped back to Bosporus where he has also fight against his own vicegerent Asander who has usurped power when the news about defeat of the king has reached him. In this war the Scythians supported Pharnaces but soon he was kIIIed.

The new ruler of Bosporus — Asander has undertaken some measures to defence the state. In particular, he tried to subdue Chersonesus. Probably, at his reign the fortress «Atheneon» and a rampart on Stariy Krym valley intended to control the Tauro-Scythians were erected. Probably, the guard duty there was carried out by representatives of local Tauro-Scythian tribes. In these events Feodosia was traditionally assigned part of strong point and frontier town. On it the Bosporian kings leant upon in their fight with barbarians and Chersonesus. In particular, in the period since 15/6 — 22/3 AD Aspurgos originating from the sarmatian environment of basin of Kuban’ has undertook the military actions against Tauro- Scythians In lapidary inscriptions he was named a king of Bosporus and Feodosia. At his reign the Sarmatian presence in Bosporus has been strengthening and probably the same situation has been on the fortified settlements of the western frontier near Feodosia. The coin finds of issues of Mithradates VIII in Stariy Krym and vIIIage Sennoye near Belogorsk city show that the distant chora of Feodosia in the I AD belonged to Bosporus.

The conflict of this king and Rome has caused that Bosporus for a long time found itself under the Rome control and took a part of it’s political course in it’s relations with barbarians of the Northern Blac Sea Littoral. The extended influx of Sarmatians and Alans to Bosporus taken place in I — centuries AD, their military actions against Late Scythian population have caused the sweepin: changes in culture and ethnic structure of population of the Kingdom and in some regions of the Crimean Peninsula. At that time the Sarmatian presence is noticeable and in the southeastern Crimea. The complicated situation has forced the Romans to bring troops into southwestern Taurica and some points of the coast. Probably in the beginning of the II AD the Roman garrison was dislocated in Kazeka — small settlement on Chauda Cape on the southeastern coast of Feodosia Bay.

Romans aspired to ensure the security of coast-wise navigation along the southern coast of Taurica and military control of the strategically importar coastal points. But, according to Periples by Arrian, even in the first half of the II century AC Feodosia has been a «deserted town». The activity of Tauro-Scythians and invasion Sarmatian tribes on the peninsula could be a reason of that fact. Probably, as a result, the Late Scythian settlements in the south-western and Central Crimea were discontinuec Perhaps, Feodosia and fortifications of its chora have run the same attack which causec temporary desolation of the town.

By Bosporian kings the military actions against Tauro-Scythians have been undertaker in subsequent time. In particular, Sauromatus II (174\5 — 210\1 AD) has taken a field agains: them having stabilised the situation on the western border of Bosporus. Coin finds and lapidar. inscriptions from Stariy Krym and Sudak confirm that in the end of the II — beginning of the I, centuries AD the power of Bosporus was assumed over the whole Mountain Taurica. At tha: period in the centre of Akmonay Isthmus some fortification among which inhabitants there were Sarmatians existed (Frontovoje 2). In the II — III centuries AD in the fortifications near Feodosia there also lived inhabitants Sarmatians by birth.

We know practically nothing about Feodosia of that period. But it hardly believes tha: such a scaled actions were taken place without the strong point in the region. The advantageous strategical location of the town and a good harbour could not remain without any attention According to epigraphic sources and new archaeological data it is possible to contend tha: this town was not «deserted» and in II — beginning of the IV it continued being the basic military base and administrative centre on the western border of Bosporus.

In the 50-ies of the III century AD the German tribes of Goths and Borans intruded intc Bosporian possessions. The territory of the European Bosporus did not suffered from invasion but the control over the western border was eased. At that time Kuru Bash — the last fortress guarding western approaches to Feodosia, was ceased. It looks very much like that at that time in Feodosia the migrants have arrived from Tanais and Gorgippia which have been ruined by Goths. After the victory of king Teiranes over Goths taken place in 276 AD, Bosporus has restored its influence in the south-eastern Taurica as far as in the inscription dated by that time and erected on behalf of religious union of Aristopolites there was mentioned the name of Feodosia commander — Menestratos, the son of Hosemphlios. The western border of the State has not changed even in the beginning of the IV century AD. This fact is testified by dedicative inscription about erection of temple in 306 AD by the commander and representative of Roman administration in Feodosia — Avrelius Valerius Sogus found in Pantikapaion. The Romans who were aspiring to consolidate the anti-barbarian forces on the north-eastern borders of Empire were interested in the strong point in Feodosia.

Probably, Feodosia was once and for all neglected during the wars between Chersonesus and Bosporus about which Konstantine Porphirogenites tells us. As far as in the end of the III century AD the king Phoforsus (285/6 — 308/9 AD), originating from the local sarmatisated aristocracy has come into power, it caused a switch in foreign policy of the State. From that moment it became aimed against the Roman Empire. In the established conditions Rome has staked on Chersonesus which for a long time championed the Roman policy on the

Ursula. The anti-Roman actions of Bosporian king «Sauromates» has forced Diocletianus : coly to Chersonesus with a request to start the military actions against Bosporus. In the : of the second war (328 — 330 AD), which actions have taken place in locality «Kafa», rosporian army was defeated. By the same time coin hoards found in surroundings of cosia and in south-eastern Crimea are dated. According to the Konstantine’s evidence, -e -ghting sides have located against each other on the «mountains» it is possible to suppose ocality «Kafa» was mountainous one. With that characteristic corresponds the locality esvard the city, i. e. the mountainous part of the south-eastern Crimea. Probably it was 3ied so in the language of local population. And just in that locality the border between I -ersonesus and Bosporus was established. The results of the third war (second quarter of V century AD) hardy reflected on the fate of Feodosia as far as a new border has been -c.ed from Kafa and has been established on so named Uzunlar rampart.

After these events -e ocality Kafa (chora of Feodosia) found itself under Chersonesus’ control. In anonymous recgraphical source dated by 360 — 386 AD it was mentioned in block with Chersonesus. the next time Feodosia found itself in the role of frontier town, the comfortable life in which ruld be attained only by existence of strong State, well guarded borders and stable foreign nation. At that time neither Chersonesus, nor Bosporus could ensure Feodosia such renditions. It caused the next in turn solid desolation of the town. The invasion of Huns in the ?-d of IV — beginning of the V AD has drawn a line in the fate of antique Feodosia. They have sotured the Steppe Crimea and the western part of European Bosporus and it hardly reflected :r flourishing in former times polis. Probably, the life in the town did not die away completely, -jj. it was not already a real town but small settlements market» which was living at the expense : the sea. Antique Feodosia has gone away together with the Epoch of Antiquity. The -.lonymous author of «Periples of Pontus Euxini» marks out that Feodosia was a deserted down and in Alan’s or Taurian dialect was named Ardabda.

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