The main body of the nomad Scythian society, as it was determined by the scholars, was a small individual family. After cederation and changing of activity the model of Scythian family and community has changed. In particular, it could be a big family-tribal community which consisted of unseparated patriarchal families of close kinship. The collective burials in the mound necropoleis testify this fact. The formation of this community alleviated by the presence of the same institute among the Scythian — Taurian population. In the IV BC the rural settlements could represent big family commun\i\es-patronimius consisted of several kin families. Gradually this community transformed into rural community with communal property in land. Population of the fortified settlements and fortresses could also unite into rural communities.
Archaeological sources characterise some religious believes of rural population.
Examination of terracotta, hand-made figurines, botros-pits and some other artefacts showed rat it has revered the deities connected with agriculture, cattle — breeding and fertility. Also -ere existed the cult of fire and domestic hearth. On the whole, the religious believes have -so a mixed Greek-barbarian character.
The foundation of Feodosia was directly connected with expansion of Persia at Ionia r:er 545 BC which caused the wide scaled migration of local Hellens to the Northern Black Eea Littoral. In the head of this migration was Miletus which chora much suffered of the Persian asion. This polis has also founded in the Northern Black Sea Littoral Tyras, Olbia, Kerkinitis -=ntikapaion, and up to the middle of the VI BC it got a great experience in this sphere. The eng period of acquaintance with locality where the apoikoi which has been intended to be -unded preceded the foundation of colony. The south-eastern Crimea and Feodosia Bay were well known to the Greek sailors because such opportune bay could not remain unnoticed г conditions of coastwise navigation along the Crimean coast and it has been undoubtedly .’sited by Hellens. That is why before the foundation of colony the metropolis was well informed =30ut geographical, demographic and political situation in that region of the Crimean :eninsula.
The initial period of life of Feodosia, especially its earliest layers remain badly known recause of poor archaeological investigations of the site. During excavations of the lowest gorizon of the town there were found the fragments of hand-made polished pottery of Taurian pe decorated with engraved geometrical ornament. This fact testifies the joint living of Greeks and local Scythian-Kizil Koba population. Examination of fragments of black-on-red and red- on-black pottery, terracotta and transport amphorae found in Feodosia and in settlement Novopokrovka 1 showed that they are dated by the end of the VI — beginning of the V BC. We now practically nothing about Feodosia of the V BC besides the fact that it was independent polis which granted asylum to some exiles from Bosporus after rise of Spartokid dynasty in 438/7 BC. During the V BC the population and economical potential of the city have grown jp, have been strengthened trade connections with Athens and other towns of Hellens World, was been mastered the rural territory. Archaeological material and literary sources testify that jp to the end of the V BC the urban community was able to build monumental buildings, ortifications, was issuing it’s own coins. The influx of migrants from Miletus after the defeat of this polis by Persian in 494 BC has promoted the intensive mastering of rural territory. The amphorae found on some rural settlements show that their foundation also took place in the beginning of the V BC.
The events of Bosporian-Feodosian war of the end of 90-ies — beginning 80-ies of the IV BC are reflected in literary sources and owing to them we got some information about the town of that period. An active part in these events has taken Heracleia. It’s position was stipulated by it’s grain import from Feodosia port, the grain cultivated in polis’chora and on the plains of Kerch Peninsula. Also Heracleia has met ready wine sale there. To this testifies the amphorae import from Heracleia which is represented in all settlements of the steppe zone of the region. In the first half of IV BC it predominate over the other wine-producing towns. Probably in time of independence of Feodosia Heracleia also had the rights of duty free grain export and Heracleian merchants kept in their hands the mediatory grain trade which brought high profit to this Southern Pontic polis. The perspective to lose such an income item impelled Heracleia to take part in that conflict.
Feodosia — is one of the poleis which, in spite of military superiority of Bosporus, has offered it persistent resistance, but was captured and annexed by Bosporus. There are different opinions on the date of finishing of that war (from 80-ies to 50-ies of the IV BC) and it’s stages and it is caused by the lack of new sources. Some new epigraphic sources make possible to date this event by 389/8 BC.
Feodosia has taken a special place in economical and political development of Bosporus. The Bosporian rulers underlined it in their titles. It was caused by strategical and economical
role of the polis which became a strong point on the western borders of the Kingdom anc became an administrative centre of the huge agrarian territory. Probably in documents cf Bosporian kings Feodosia was meant not only as a town but as a rural territory which among the local population has a parallel name «Kafa». As the dying away of the ancient Greek tow” was put in use the new name which maintained tIII the end of XIII century when the Genoa trading station on the place of the town was named also Kafa.
By these reasons the polis was probably ruled by one of the members of Bosporiar dynasty and at the Roman Period — by military leader. At the moment of annexion by Bosporus Feodosia has a relatively developed rural territory which was oriented at wheat cultivation The grain export was the basic condition of flourishing of rural settlements and the town. Side by side with wheat from Feodosia probably were also exported production of cattle-breeding fish and slaves. After annexion of Feodosia and reconstruction of it’s sea-port the dependence of chora from Bosporian kings has strengthened. In some measure it was one of the methods of influencing upon as Feodosian community and local rural population.
In the final quarter of the V century BC Feodosia has started the coinage of municipa silver and bronze which lasted, with some intermissions, tIII the middle of the III century BC. Ir the end of the first third of the III century BC the coinage of Feodosia was restored, and it was connected with particular frontier status of the city which needed the complementary means of circulation. The coins issued in Feodosia were found in the settlements neighbouring anc distant (up to 50 km deep into peninsula) of Feodosia, and it indirectly indicate the dimensions of agricultural neighbourhood. After annexation of Feodosia by Bosporus in the city and chora circulated the bosporian issues. In the beginning of the I century BC in the neighbourhood o‘ the polis (in the fortified sites) have been circulating the coins of Pontic cities allotted to the State of Mythradates VI Eupatoros and in further times up to the end of the III century AD there circulated coins of Bosporian Kingdom and Roman Provincial coinage.
The IV BC was the time of the highest economical rise of polis and chora of Feodosia At that time the territory of the town was highest possibly increased, there were built monumental buildings of Ionian and Dorian orders, enlarge the quantity of rural settlements The general situation is reflected by artefacts of urban necropolis. The period of flourishing has finished in the final third of the III BC in consequence of pressure of Sarmatians anc probably as a result of the predatory campaigns deep into Kerch Peninsula. That is why the population was forced to leave grown roots territory and move partly to the foothIIIs anc mountains and partly to the most quite territories of Bosporian Kingdom. At that time the desolation of the Crimean steppe can be observed — there the burials of Scythian type datec later then the middle of the III BC are unknown.
In the second quarter of the III BC on the sea coast (Beregovoye 1) and in the nearest tc Feodosia foothIIIs (Kuru Bash, Biyuk Yanyshar) appeared new small fortified settlements like fortresses and in the middle of the III BC — the fortified site Sary Kaya. In the II -1 BC the similar fortifications, settlements and farmhouses and rampart appear in the valley Stariy Krym and in the mountain part of the south-eastern Crimea.
On the certain stage (in the 111 BC -111 AD) the nearest to the city fortresses (Biyuk Yanyshar. Kuru Bash, Beregovoye 1) were the links in the chain of fortification of the region and performed the guard duties on the western border of Bosporus. The population stood guard over the borders and chora of the city, was occupied with agriculture and cattle-breeding and was submitted to Bosporian kings. The ethnic belonging of inhabitants of the fortified settlements in the foothIIIs is not studied well, but according to the new archaeological data it was a local one and concerned to the late hellenised Tauro-Scythian population of the south-eastern Crimea.
To onslaught of Sarmatians Bosporus opposed normalisation of relations with Scythians. The Bosporian-Scythian alliance was sealed with traditional wedlock of representatives of
Sosporian and Scythian royal courts. On the whole, the overcoming of econocimal and political r sis has led to formation in the Crimea of two withstanding alliances — Bosporians and Scythians, and Chersonesians and Sarmatians. As a result there was gained some sabilisation of life on the Crimean peninsula. In conditions of balance of political forces for a snort time Feodisia’s chora and it’s economics time were revived. It is proved by single finds г unfortified settlements of Sinope clay stamps of the second half of the III BC and bosporian roins of the thirst quarter of the same century.