Округа античной Феодосии

The chronology of transport amphorae and clay stamps indicate the sequence changes in Feodosia’s trade with different Greek centres. The examination of fragments of amphorae originating from unfortified settlements made possible to indicate the centres which have been exporting goods to the region since the beginning of the V century — to the first half of the III century BC. On the initial stage of their existence the settlements imported goods from towns of Ionia — MIIIets, Samos, Lesbos and Chios. In the second half of the V century BC the delivery of goods from Chios, Thasos and Mende predominated. In the IV century BC the South Pontic cities — Heracleia and Sinope and also Colchis, started their export to the region. The most remarkable was Heracleia which export of wine repeatedly overcame deliveries of the other cities. At that time in the less, quantities wine from Chios, Thasos, Mende, Samothrace, Rhodes and Peparethus was imported. In the final third of the IV century BC Heracleia has left its positions in the south-eastern Crimea and Sinope started leading. The peak of export from this town to the settlements of steppe zone of the region fell on the final quarter of the IV century BC and predominated the export of the other cities.

On the whole, there were studied 1262 complete and fragmented clay stamps found in 29 sites of Feodosia’s chora. 700 of them belong to Heracleia, 446 — to Sinope, 51 — to Thasos, 19 — to Chersonesus, 10 — to Chios, 12 — to Rhodes, 5 — to Mende, 3 — to Thasian towns, 2 — to Cnydus, 1 — to Cos, 13 — to unattributed centres. Examination of Heracleian and Sinopean clay stamps shows their recurrence as in the assemblages of separate settlements and on the other sites on the whole and this fact testifies synchronous purchase of big batch of wine in amphorae. It also indicates the mass import of this production to the city just after a corn harvest of a new season. In the final quarter of the IV — beginning of the III centuries BC re wine from Chersonesus and Cnidus was also imported. On some steppe settlements were found separate fragments of amphorae of Cos and Sinope and stamps of the second -sffofthe III BCand bosporian coins of the beginning of the II BC — this fact shows that some reputation has remained there. The wheel-made kitchen and table pottery was brought to rоs late settelments in small quantity.

In the lowest layers of fortified settlements are also met the fragments of Rodian amphorae з-d stamps dated by the second half of the III — second half of the II BC, Kolchidian amphorae г the III — II BC, Sinope amphorae of the III -1 BC, Heracleian amphorae of the III BC. The —nsport vessels of the I BC -1 AD are represented by fragments of the following amphorae: cnt-clay with wide mouth and double handles (type СI by S. Yu. Vnukov), light-clay with wide -outh and profiled handles (type С III by S. Yu. Vnukov), red-clay with pseudo-double handles, -=d-clay with double handles. In the upper layers more often were met the fragments of znphorae of the II — first half of the III AD: pink-clay with wide mouth, red-clay with riffle rims, Mirmekion and Fanagoria type with flat bottom and with quadruple or quintruple handles, -=d-clay with crater-like mouth, «with risen handles», light-clay with narrow mouth of С and D ‘эе (by D. B. Shelov). On the whole, at that period the import of wine and oil was carried out the towns of Bosporus and Southern Pontus.

Already in the end of the V BC and especially in the second half of the IV -111 BC the trade roerations were realised with the use of money and this fact is testified by the coins finds on re majority of settlements of the region. On some settlements were found coins of the early -eodosian coinage which together with amphorae indicate the dimensions of chora of that reriod. Moreover, the coin finds of Pantikapeon issues in more western and interior regions :f Crimean Peninsula shows that these regions were included in the sphere of economical snd political interests of Bosporus. The majority of coins belongs to the mass scaled issues cf Bosporus of the second half of the IV — first third of the III BC intended for the inner market. : IIIustrates intensive development of money-commodity circulation in the region and the presence of small producers and consumers. Money were probably used also for buying some articles: tools, pottery, adornments etc. The existence of retail trade is testified by the аnd on the settlement Novopokrovka 1 of measuring oinochoi and stone weight. It cannot be excluded the sale by the prosperous representatives of rural communities (or Scythian ruling in probably controlling some rural communities) of the large batches of grain.

The finds of hand-made pottery decorated with sticks, tools made of stone, flint and oronze on some seasonal sites show that these places were inhabited already in the Late Bronze Age by carriers of Belozyorskaya archaeological culture. According to the increasing quantity of sites the density of population was much more. But the solid layers were not fixed jp neither on the antique settlement, nor the seasonal sites. The population — the carrier of this culture — has been just that substrates on the basis of which later on the Kizil Koba culture and the culture of Taurians of the Crimean Mountains formed. With representatives of this culture the Scythians arrived there already in the second half of the VII BC had close connections. As a result of inter-ethnic relations the Scythian-Taurians ethnos has formed and it occupied mainly the foothIIIs and partly the steppe zone of the Crimean Peninsula.

This population was semi-nomadic, dealing with cattle-breeding and primitive agriculture and owing to this way of live this population was constantly migrating. Probably, it was dependent of Scythians. But the tribes inhabiting the Crimean Mountains remained independent and soon have got the general ethnonimus «Taurians». Scythian-Taurians population did not create it’s own culture which could differ from Scythian and Taurian and it did not become the separate ethnos. And by this reason this population was not marked by literary and epigraphic sources. It seams, that necropolis near Frontovoye 1 belongs to Scythian-Taurian population while necropolis of the settlement Krinichki 1 — to it’s descendants.

The finds of hand-made pottery of Scythian and Taurian style on the settlements and in necropoleis indicate that there lived mixed Taurian and Scythian population. The simila- pottery was found on various rural settlements, ground necropoleis and in some Crimea- towns of the time of Antiquity. The cedentation of Taurian and Scythian population in the soutN eastern Crimea has started in the end of the VI — beginning of the V centuries BC afte- Helens’ arrival in the region. Their colony played a role of original catalyst of that process. Sc in the time of Feodosia’s foundation, the colonists kept in touch as with nomadic Scythians and mountain Taurians, and with mixed Tauro-Scythian population. The artefacts show the: they became the inhabitants of the first rural settlements where they probably represented the majority.

As a result of active cedentation of Scythians in the end of the V — beginning of the l\ centuries BC the Tauro-Scythian population was assimilated. It had an effect on the materia culture of settlements. Its basic character became mostly Scythian and only burial right anc hand-made pottery testify the former heterogeneity of that ethnos. After cessation of life or the unfortified settlements on the plain which has take place in the end of the first third of the III century BC some part of its descendants moved to the fortified settlements on the foothIIIs The inheritance of the ancient traditions, in particular, in hand-made pottery and burial right are to be observed for a long enough time — up to the beginning of the I century AD.

The intensive relations between barbarians and Greeks promoted the forming of the mixed Greek-barbarian population. Archaeological data also show that the rural settlements have been inhabited since the V century BC. This fact is testified by finds of early types of terracotta figurines, graffiti, superficial stone-adobe dwellings, by cultivating of such sorts o wheat which were typical to the Greek system of agriculture and by artefacts of necropoleis of more late period (Krinichki 1, Frontovoye II).

The Scythian-Taurian population forming inhabitants of the primary rural settlements coulc be dependent of the Scythian rulers of different levels and could give them the biggest portion of harvest as a payment (tribute) for land use. About such a practice Strabo informs us [VII, 4. 6]. Probably, such a situation maintained in the IV — first third of the III BC when the majority of population in settlement were Scythians. The polis exploited the rural population by the means of unequal exchange. In the second half of the III BC and up to the middle of the III AD the population of fortifications was submitted to the Bosporian kings, stood guard over the borders and chora of the city, inhabitants were occupied with agriculture and cattle-breeding like on the territory of European Bosporus. In the III BC-first half of the I AD it were the descendants of autochthon Tauro-Scythian population and later on — since the second half to the middle of the III AD the representatives of Sarmatian ethnos inhabited the region. This fact is well IIIustrated by materials of hand-made pottery assemblage and by materials from necropoleis.

The Scythian-Taurian population in the V BC consisted of family-patrimonial groups united into semi-nomadic communities, the fact testified by the repeatedly used ground graves and stone graves. Probably, such necropoleis belonged to the representatives of a single patrimonial group and the graves — to separate families. On one settlement could live one tribal community the separate families of which could own the dwelling and farm assemblages.

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