Округа античной Феодосии

The materials from Novopokrovka 1 settlement showed that wheel-made imported pottery has taken only 0,5 % of general quantity of pottery sherds. It can be divided into three groups: 1 — coarse wares of household use (cauldrons, mortaroi, pans); 2 — fine kitchen and table wares (pots, plates different kinds of Attic black-lacquered and red-on-black pottery (kylikes, skyphoi, kantharoi, krateres, cups, fish plates, salt-cellars, lekythoi)’, 3 — the wares of special use (measured oinochoes, lamps, scent-bottles and tiny votive pottery, weights of looms). All wheel-made pottery is dated by the limits of the V-first third of the III BC. The majority of types of that pottery were also found in the other settlements.

The hand-made pottery in Novopokrovka 1 settlement took 11,5 % of ceramic assemblage and by its use can be divided into three main groups: 1 — kitchen pottery (cauldrons, pots, pans, frying pans); 2-table wares (jugs, plates, cups, scoops, bowls, salt-cellars, strainers, gutti)\ 3 — storage pottery (amphorae). The kitchen pottery partly was decorated in Scythian style by finger print on rims, shoulders or edge of bottoms. The surfaces of some specimens of table pottery sometimes are polished and decorated with characteristic Kizil Koba (Taurian) incised linear-geometrical decoration. The vessels of that group were met practically in all sites of the steppe zone of the region.

To the group of ceramics of special use belong weights for looms, weights, terracotta figurines, so named «small loaf of bread» and articles of amphorae sherds. Practically on all settlements there were found coins minted at Pantikapaion, Feodosia, Early Chersonesus, Phanagoria and Kolchis and also graffiti, glass beads, bronze bangles, rings, pendants, mirrors, arrow-points, hand-bells, led weights, zoomorphical bronze details of harness (animal style). The iron wares are represented by ploughs and knives; of bone-by rasps, needles, pin-hole instruments, polishers, arrow-points, beads etc. The stone instruments are represented by grind stones, whetstones, oilstones, sling stones and weights. Approximately in the second half of the IV BC the material culture on the whole territory of European Bosporus including the rural territory of Feodosia became similar owing to political stability which took place after entry of polis to Bosporian State.

The wide interethnic contacts and farming monotony mostly connected with primary orientation of settlements to grain production also iromoted the levelling of material culture.On the whole, the artefacts have numerous analogies г the Scythian, Taurian and Ancient Greek sites of the Crimea and North Black Sea Littoral, saving characterise the material culture of Feodosia’ chora as a rural one and testify that the casic activity of its population was agriculture aimed at grain production and personal holding battle-breeding.

The results of palaeobotanical examination showed that in these settlements Triticum astivum, Hordeum Vulgare and Polysticum, bean, pea, Vica Aurelia, Nout, rye and mIIIet have been cultivated. The presence of some kind of weed testify the long usage of the fields for food grains cultivation. According to this fact, probably there were used fallow lands and two-field rotation of corps, winter and spring corps. The soil was cultivated by wooden goughshare with iron points. A find of such a tool was made on the settlement Novopokrovka. The bullocks were used as a draught animals, inhabitants cut corn, threshed by different methods and instruments, kept corn in pits, mIIIed on mIII-stones. The grinding for probable sale was made with the help of massive levelled mIII-stones and with the small mIII-stones — foг domestic needs. As a find of limestone pressing stone on the fortified settlement Kuru 3ash has shown, the population of nearest to Feodosia settlement in II-1 centuries BC had эееп cultivating grape, probably, for domestic use.

The live-stock-raising was probably of personal plot character, but the presence of shepherd points in the steppe near Sivash Lake testify the usage of driving away method. The paleozoological analysis of bone material from Novopokrovka 1 settlement showed that the population has bred neat cattle, horses, sheep, goat, pigs, hens and ducks. This kind of activity was aimed at the breeding of draught cattle, meat and milk production, production of skin and wool. There were also found bones of wild fauna — deer, roe, fox, badger, marten, namster, heron, wild duck etc. The hunting has no big importance, was irregular and aimed at oagging fur, skins and meat.

The handicrafts in the settlements were mostly of domestic manner and were aimed at satisfaction of personal needs of inhabitants in tools and other domestic needs. It was a manufacture of hand-made pottery, small tools, articles of stone, bone, wood, leather, inhabitants also dealt with wool-spinning, weaving and skinning. In the fortified settlements there were usually manufactured hand-made pottery, weaving weights, bone articles, limestone mortars and pressing stones.

In the pottery assemblages from fortified sites and settlements of the second half of the III -1 BC is notable the hand-made pottery typical to Late Scythian culture of the Crimea. It is decorated with relief wave-like sticks, volute curls, knobs stylised human faces etc. It is represented by fragments of amphorae, pots, plates with tall rims, cups. Among hand-made pottery are notable fragments of handles of cups modelled like rope made of three twisted plaits and also samples imitating such a rope sometimes decorated by knobbed stick in it’s upper part. They are imitations of wheel-made wares dated by II -1 BC. The similar pottery originates from Kutlak fortress («Atheneon») dated by I BC -1 AD and from other fortification (Karasan Oba, Sary Kaya, Biyuk Yanyshar) and some farmhouses (Machuk) of Feodosia’s chora. The scholar connect it with local barbarian population (Late Scythians or Tauro- Scythians).

The hand-made pottery of the upper layers of the III — II BC of the fortified sites (Kuru Bash) and ordinary settlements (Alan Tepe 1) is represented by fragments of kitchen pots, oinochoai, cups and plates. The fragments of pots with typical arched sticked handles, omegalike stick in the lower part of the vessels and knob-like sticks on the upper part of handles are notable. These decorations are usually connected with Sarmatians and are dated by II -1 AD. There only few specimens of polished pottery.

The wheel-made table pottery from the upper layers (II — III AD) from fortified settlement Kuru Bash is represented by red-clay and red-, brown-lacquered jugs and cups, red-clay and red-lacquered pinakes, red-lacquered vessels with semi-spherical body and vertical rim, red-lacquered vessels of amphorae type, luteriai, cups, plates, lamps with horizontal handles, plates with folded horizontally rim and trited decoration on the bottom. The lowest layers of the III -1 BC were often met the fragments of lagynoiwith handles looking like twisted rope, «Megarian» bowls and black-lacquered pottery of the IV — III BC. On the fortified sites Kuru Bash and Biyuk Yanysharwas also found pottery of special use: fragments of terracotta, tiles and weight of vertical looms. The articles of metal are represented there by bronze nails, rings, buckles, fibulae, led clips for pottery repair, iron knives. On the sites Sary Kaya and Kuru Bash the beads were also found.

Only after mastering of the rural territory the citizen community of Feodosia has got an additional production and this fact made possible to adjust intensive polis’ trade with other ancient Greek towns. The sale of agricultural production provided the regular influx of imported goods to the city. Such a production was, first of all, wheat which cultivating already in the IV BC has got a single-minded trade character. In the rural territory of Feodosia the peak of trading activity is dated by the same period, when, according to information of Strabo the intensive export of wheat from the sea-port of Feodosia was noticeable. The increase of the volume of trade operations stimulated the rise of new settlements and further development of agriculture.

The early transport amphorae and black-lacquered pottery testify that in the initial period of it’s existence Feodosia had trade connections of primary importance with Ionian towns and Athens. As the materials from the rural settlements show, the import of Attic black-lacquered pottery did not interrupted during the whole V BC notably increased in the final third of the century. From the town to the settlements were brought wine, oil and goods. In particular, the fragments and complete samples of mIIIstones made of diorite were found on the settlements of chora not only of Feodosia, but Bosporus also. This rock originated from the deposit situated 18 km south-westward from Feodosia on the slopes of Svyataya Mountain of the mountain chain Kara Dag. There were situated ancient quarry. In the same region near modem Koktebel is situated the salt lake Barakol’ where in Antiquity the salt output was carried out.

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