Округа античной Феодосии

In 1949,1951 -1952 the excavations on the Quarantine HIII inside the medieval citadel were undertaken by I. B. Zeestand from 1974 to 1977 — by B. G. Peters. The archaeological

excavation uncovered the cultural deposits of the ancient Greek city of about 5 m thickness. The thickness of cultural deposits is biger in the north — western part of the site then in the eastern and they lay on the depth of 2 m from the modern surface. Investigators have noted the poor safety of deposits of the Roman period caused by medieval building works. Excavations have fixed a strong layer of fire dated by the beginning of the IV ВС. I. B. Zeest connected it with events of Bosporian-Feodosian war. The ancient Greek levels contained building remains of the V- III BC and material of the I — IV AD. In particular, the remains of the building of the V BC erected of the carefully trimmed blocks. It’s interior walls were plastered and painted in red and yellow. The building on the stone basement with the walls of adobe bricks is dated by the IV BC. The floors were made of clay, strewed with sandstone gravel and cobbled with limestone and pebbles. The rooms were heated by hearths built of stone slabs. The dwellings had some elements of public services-gutters, paving. Undoubtedly there were wells and cisterns for rain-waters, water-piping running from natural springs etc. The were also found the remains metallurgical works — the blowing hearth of the I AD and a scaled quantity of archaeological material.

The borders of the ancient town are not determined yet. On the basis of the most similar analogies, especially of ancient Kerkinitis, Tyras and Euesperides in Cyrenaica it is possible to suppose that the square of Feodosia in different stages of it’s history took from 5 to 20 hectares. But there exists an opinion that the ancient Greek town occupied the territory about 30 — 40 hectares. The centre of the town was the Quarantine HIII where acropolis, temenos, agora, theatre, public buildings and houses of citizens were probably situated. At the maritime north-eastern foothIII, practically on the place of the modern sea-port, the ancient commercial port with row of stalls, docks and storehouses was situated and the Quarantine HIII was surrounded by it’s perimeter with walls and towers. Because of natural (the ingression of the sea) and anthropogene leasons (fIIIing up of the sea bottom during the building of the sea port in the end of the XIX century and compact modern building) the archaeological study of ancient suburb of the city and it’s sea-port district at present times is practically impossible.

Because of lack of systematic archaeological excavations the material culture of the town is studied incompletely ant characteristic of this culture for a long time was based on the artefacts from necropolis and finds made during the building of the modern sea-port. In the middle of the XX century were published the materials found before and the archaeological materials of a new finds which included the publications in numismatic, red-on-black pottery, epigraphies, coroplastic, jewerly, glyptics. Were published new find of Feadosia’s coins found both on the settlements of chora and on the territory of the other sites. Also were published clay stamps, graffiti and dipinti, grave stone relieves and red-on-black pottery from excavations of the town. On the basis of those materials the different sides of life of polis itself and Feodosians were reconstructed. On the whole, the present archaeological data characterise Feodosia as a typical. Hellenic town which has maintained for a long time its originality in spite of its relative remoteness and barbarian surroundings.

At present time the rural territory of Feodosia distant of the city and inhabited mostly by heterogeneous population is studied more completely. It’s study was begun in the middle of the 50-ies by I. T. Kruglikova and is continued at present time. This territory is situated between Ak Monai Isthmus in the East and steppe river Indol in the West; in the South it is limited by the spurs of the Crimean Mountains: Tete Oba, Uzun Syrt and mountain mass Agarmysh, this territory also includes the south-eastern part of the Crimean Mountains up to the sea coast; in the North the territory is limited by salt lake Sivash. On that territory there were found 65 unfortified settlements, 2 shepherd points, 1 site, 1 fortified settlement, 8 small fortresses, ground and mound necropolises, the remains of ground ramparts. The rampart, some fortifications, settlements, sites and mountain farm-house of the II century BC — middle of the IV century AD were found in the valley of Staryi Krym and its surroundings (Fig.1 -3). It snould be underlined that barbarian settlements and burial grounds of the V — beginning of re III centuries BC were found also westward — in the steppe Central Crimea.

They were srtuated on the territory of the steppe Crimea up to river Salgir and this fact indicates that that Brritory was in sphere of political and economical interests of Bosporus. In respect of ancient srtes, this territory is archaeologically poor studied yet and it is necessary to pay an intent attention in future for well-grounded judgement of it’s role in history of the Crimean Scythia snd Bosporus.

The chronology of unfortified settlements and fortresses is based on the dating of storage amphorae and clay stamps, Attic black- and red-on-black pottery and coins. The analysis of nis material shows that the foundation of unfortified settlements in the steppe zone of the region belongs to the beginning of V century BC and the dawnfall — to the end of the first third 3f the III century BC. In the end of the first third of the III century BC part of settlements in the steppe zone perished owing to forays of the Sarmatians, part of settlements remained nhabited, part was left by inhabitants and the territory of Feodosia’s chora considerably declined.

The rest population moved to foothIIIs and the mountain zone of the region where неге built small fortresses with vIIIages around them. The existence of two modest fortifications n the foothIIIs near Feodosia is dated on the basis of amphorae and coin finds in the following chronological limits: Biuk Yanyshar settlement -from the second third of the III to the end of the II centuries BC, there were also met the finds of the II — III centuries AD; Kuru Bash settlement — from IV century BC tIII third quarter of the III century AD. Fortifications on the mountain Sary Kaya — middle of the III century BC -1 century AD; fortification Beregovoye 1 on the shore of Feodosia Bay — IV century BC -1 century AD. But the life of part of them was periodically interrupted because of unstable political situation on the western borders of Bosporus.

On initial stage of its existence Feodosia has the city-chora which was situated just near the borders of the ancient town. According to investigations of other poleis of North Black Sea Littoral the square of its chora could approximately be about 300 — 400 hectares. At present time this territory is occupied by modern urban buildings. Simultaneously with formation of the polis the mastering of near-by territories and strengthening of relations with the local barbarian population have taken place — the has been forming the agricultural territory (distant chora).

In the steppe part of the region there are known 19 settlements (Tepe Oba; Uzun Syrt (foothIIIs); Nadejda; Partyzany 1,2; Novopokrovka 1,3; Zuravki 1,2; Aivazovskoye; Krinichki; Shubino 1; llichevo 1; Sinitzyno 1; Vladislavovka 1,2 and ctr.) which according to archaeological data were founded in the beginning of the V century BC and, together with city’s chora, formed the agricultural basis of independent Feodosia. In the IV century BC their quantity rise up to 60 settlements and that event was caused by different reason, but first of all by the process of settling of Scythians. At that period the chora of Feodosia attains its maximum dimension. The literary sources inform us about the wide-scaled grain export of that period from Feodosia’s sea-port. In the end of the first third of the III BC because of pressure of Sarmatians and forced migration of the part of Scythian population from the basin of Dneper and Don Rivers and also because of military and politic conflict between Scythians and Greek States of the Crimea, the unfortified settlements in the plain zone were partly destroyed, partly left by their population and the territory of Feodosia’s chora sizeably reduced.

The settlements settled by comparatively solid groups round rivers, springs and fertile lands. In nature they are indicated with ash spots of 30 — 70 m in diameter which are the remains of farm-houses, ash-heaps and now indicate the places of dwellings and agricultural assemblages. On these spots the archaeological material — the fragments of storage amphorae, clay stamps, black-lacquered pottery, coins, mIIIstones, bones of animals etc. were found.

The square of spreading of artefacts and the quantity of spots show that dwelling and agricultural assemblages were situated in nature in disorder, on some distance one from another. The settlements have got a planning system — a few dwellings surrounded by agricultural units. In this respect the settlements of Feodosian chora much resemble with the early rural settlements of Bosporus and Olbia. The borders of the settlements are diffused and usually are determined by the square of spreading of casual finds.Their square oscIIIates from 0,42 to 10 hectares. On this basis there were marked out three typological groups of sites: 1 — small sites with square up to 0,5 hectares; 2 — vIIIages of medium dimensions with square from 1 to 10 hectares which represent the majority of uncovered sites; 3 — the season points of shepherds which are situated in the steppe near Sivash and are characterised by poor deposits and small square. The thickness of layers on the sites of the steppe zone is about 0,4-1,2 m.

The dwelling and farm assemblages of settlements are semi mud-huts, clay-wicker and stone-adobe buildings. The floors in that houses were ground, the roofs — built of thatch or cane. For heating the hearths and esharae were used. Among farm objects on Orechovka 1 and Novopokrovka 1 settlements were investigated a clay-plastered square, wells, dump of amphorae, granary and farm pits, clay-plastered squares used for threshing. Clay-plastered square was situated at the southern side of the dwelling and probably was used as a threshing- floor. The well — the cylindrical pit — probably had a wooden frame. Grainary and domestic pits were the obligatory attribute of dwelling and farm assemblages and can be divided into 5 main types which differ from each other by form and value. Some pits were used for rubbish or were used as cellars.

Страницы: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Вам также может понравиться...