Округа античной Феодосии


The developing of the south-eastern Crimea by Hellens has begun on the late final stage of Greek Colonisation with foundation of apoikoi Feodosia in the second half of the VI BC. Probably, the majority of migrants consisted of citizens of Miletus and its chora ruined by Persians, — the migrants who aspired to establish the autonomous polis far from other Greek colonies of Cimmerian Bosporus. As far as the most fertile lands in the Eastern Crimea have been occupied by Hellens already in the end of the VII — first half of the Vl-th centuries BC, this fact, probably became one of the reasons of foundation of Feodosia in a long way from the other Greek centres of the region.

The evidences of literary sources of that polis are very brief and fragmented and they indirectly IIIustrate the time of city’s foundation. In particular, Arrian (appr. 95 -175 AD) and Anonymous author of Periples of Pontus Euxini (VI AD) informs us that the polis was founded by Milesians and was mentioned in various literary sources [Arr., Per., 30; Anon. Per. Pont. Eux., 77 (51)]. Literary sources do not show us evidences on the independent period of Feodosia existence during the whole V BC excepting the evidence of Anonymous Author about the bosporian exiles who have taken shelter in the town [Anon. Per. Pont. Eux., 77 (51)]. Probably them Isocrates (IV BC) mentioned in his Trapedzit speech [Isocr., Trapedz., XVII, 3, 5] the Bosporian-Feodosian war of the beginning of the IV BC was reflected in the commentaries by Ulpian (end of the II — beginning of the III AD) to the judicial speech of Demosphenes (383 — 322 BC) «Against Leptinus» and in «The Dictionary to Ten Orators» by Valerius Garpocration (II AD); [Schol. ad Demosth., in Lacr., 20, 33 — 9, 477 Dind, s. v. 0ey5oaia; Harpocrat., Lexic, s. v. ©еубосла]. From which it follows, that archontes of the Bosporus Satirus I (393/2 — 389/8 BC) has died at the time of besiege of Feodosia. Moreover, Ulpian informs that polis (market) was named after the sister or wife of ktistes, but this hypothesis is stIII disputable. In commentaries to the judicial speeches of Demosphenes «Against Lacrites» (351 — 340 BC) and «Against Leptinus» (335/4 BC) the same author informs about existence in the city of prosperous landholders who used the labour of hired labourers and about organisation of amenities of the sea-port of Feodosia carried out by Leukonos I (389/8 — 349/8) after annexation of the city by Bosporus [Demosth., Adv., Lacr., XXXV; Demosth., in Lept., XX, XXXIII ].

About some events of Feodosia-Bosporian War tells us Polyaen in his «Strategmae» and the author of «Economics» by Pseudo-Aristotle (final quarter of the IV В С) [Polyen., Strat., V, 23.6,9,3-4; Ps.-Arist. Oec., II, 2,8] in particular, about the military and food supply rendered by Heracleia Pontica; about military actions against Leukonos I taken place near Feodosia and in Bosporus. The facts that Feodosia was the frontier city between Bosporus and Taurians, disposing fertile chora and comfortable sea port from which a great volume of corn were exported, Strabo testifies in his «Geography» (appr. 63 BC — 23 AD) [Strabo., VII, 4,4,310]. Feodosia is mentioned by Pseudo-Scylak (IV BC) and Claudius Pompony Mela (I AD), by Ammianus Marcelin (beginning of 30-ies-the end of 90-ies of the IV AD) and Paul Orosy(appr. 380 AD-VAD) [Ps.-Scyl., Peripl.,69; Pomp. Mela, Chorogr., II, 3; Amm. Marc. Res gest.,XXII, 8,35; P. Oros., Hist., 1,2,4-6]. Pliny (23/4-79 AD) and Claudius Ptolemy (II AD) showed the location of Feodosia and the last author even gave it’s coordinates (63° 20′ — 47°20/) and the length of the longest summer- day (15.50). Ulpian, Valerius Garpokration and Pseudo-Skylak underline that Feodosia was situated in the Scythian lands. Ammian Marcelin (appr. 330 — 400 AD) noted that Feodosia has been one of the towns of Taurica where has been used the human sacrifition [Amm. Marc., Res gest., XXII, 8,6].

The events taken place in the I century BC and connected with the city are reflected by Appian (100 -170 AD), who tells about defection of Feodosia from Mythradates VI Eupatoros, the capture of the city by Pharnaces supplied by Scythians and Sauromatians. Besides, he also notes that in the tactical sense the polis was well situated [App., Mithr., 108,120]. About the close connections of Feodosia and Heracleia Pontica testifies Memnon writing about the siege of town Kottoi in 72 — 70 BC. In the critical situation Heracleians have twice sent embassy tfith the request of food supply and alliance to Bosporus, Chersonesus and Feodosia. Both embassies were successful and Romans, in order to cease the maritime foods supply of Heracleia, had to set the naval blockade of the city, as a result, the city failed [Memn., Пер. Ирак. t XVI, X, VII, 2; XLIX, 41. Stephanes from Byzantium (VI AD) has mentioned the name of citizen of the city ©euSocriavcx;, ©suSoaieuq [Steph. Byz., Ethnic]. About a new name of the city-Ardabda-writes the Anonymous author of Periples [Anon. Per. Pont. Eux., 77 (51)].

Feodosia and events connected with this city are mentioned in some epigraphic sources found on archaeological sites of Kerch and Taman’ Peninsulas and also in the Chersonesian Decree in honour of Diophantes. From Feodosia come the lists of personal names and epitaphs on the grave stones [CBI, № № 947 — 951]. The grave stone with the name of Feodosian Philoxenes originates from necropolis of Panticapeum and the orthography of town’s name is reflected in inscription from Miletus dated about 200 BC and it testifies the evidence of Stephanes from Byzantium.

Feodosia was localised long ago and this localisation has no doubts. The polis was situated on the shore of a big bay at the foot of mountain ridge Tete Oba (289 m) and was founded on the coastal height now called «The Quarantine HIII». It is the southern suburb of the modern city and is situated not far from Iliya’ Cape. In it’s eastern and north-eastern part the height goes down like amphitheatre to the sea in it’s southern part — limited by gorge where the brook flew. It’s northern slopes were relatively gentle and probably in this area the suburb was situated. On the surface of the site along the eastern and southern slopes of the hIII the medieval fortress walls with towers run. Part of space inside the citadel now is occupied by modern dwellings.

The modest excavations of Feodosia, in comparison with other Ancient Greek sites of the North Black Sea Littoral, were caused by thickness of medieval layers and by the fact that ancient architectural remains at present time are situated under the modern city-buildings. In the 50-ies of the XIX century A. A. Sibirsky and I. K. Aivazovsky, E. F. de Vilnev, A. E. Lutzenko have undertaken excavations of mound necropolis of Feodosia of the V- III centuries AD situated on the mountain ridge Tete Oba. In 1894 the excavations have been continued by A. L. Bertier-Delagard, and periodically during 1978-1995 the excavations were held by E. A. Katyushin and other investigators. Excavations of the city’s necropolis showed that the majority of burials have been undertaken in the burial right of cremation, also there was marked few burials with armament. This detail essentially differs necropolis of Feodosia from necropoleis of the other bosporian towns and makes much of the ethnic Greek character of necropolis. But the summary materials of the ancient Greek necropolis of Feodosia are not published yet while this publication can solve much problems of the town’s and region’s history.

In the second half of the XIX century the first publications of archaeological materials, in particular numismatic and jewerly from Feodosia necropolis have come to light. In a view of reconstruction of Feodosia’s sea-port (1891 — 1895) on the territory of the city there were undertaken extensive earthworks controlled by A. L. Bertier-elagard. At that time the northwestern part of Quarantine HIII was levelled to the ground and there was collected a various archaeological material of the Antique period of the city. But it was published selectively and most of the finds remained unknown. During the dredge works in the aquatory of the sea-port there on the depth of 10 m there were found the remains of ancient pier, probably dated by Antique period. It has been built of pine piles (about 4000) hammered into the bottom and guarding the rectangular harbour.

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